**Assignment Task**

**Task**

**The Industry Scenario:**

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Get Help Now!You are a new graduate researcher at a social science and psychological sciences research institute, and you have been given a dataset to analyse which relates to a study of Californian adults in 2020. The survey, titled the California Health Interview Survey [CHIS] collects extensive information regarding health status, health conditions, health related behaviours, health insurance coverage and other health-related issues and demographic information. You have been tasked with conducting the initial analysis of some variables using SPSS and to write brief reports.

**Data Preparation:**

For Assignment Part 2 you can use the random sample of 1500 of the 6259 observations you generated from the original data file STA10003 SP1 2022 Assignment Data.sav. You do not need to generate a new random sample. If you have misplaced the random sample drawn for Assignment Part 1 you should draw a new random sample as per the instructions contained in the Assignment part 1 document.

**Assignment Part:**

**Question 1: **

**Cigarette Consumption.**

The variable Cigarettes gives an indication of number of cigarettes each Californian adult reported smoking in the previous day. Research indicated that American adults smoke, on average, 15 cigarettes per day. A respiratory researcher has claimed that Californian adults smoke more. Conduct a one sample t-test using the Cigarettes variable to test this claim. Produce the relevant output and write a one-sample t-test report based on your output in the style presented in Supplement G: Report writing for Hypothesis Tests. Include the relevant output with your answer.

**Question 2a: **

**Psychological Distress.**

The variable PsychDistressScore gives an indication of psychological distress displayed by each participant. Scores are based on the Kessler K6 screening scale which asks participants six questions relating to how often they felt nervous, hopeless, restless, depressed, worthless and ‘everything is an effort’ over the previous month. Scores can range between 0 [no distress] and 24 [high distress]. A psychologist predicted that there is a difference in psychological distress score between people aged less than 40 years and people aged 40 or older. Conduct an independent samples t-test using the PsychDistressScore and AgeGrp variables to test this claim. Produce the relevant output and write an independent samples t-test report based on your output in the style presented in Supplement H: Report Writing for Independent Samples t-Test. Include the relevant output with your answer.

**Question 2b: **

Assumption Checking for the independent samples t-test Check and comment on the assumptions of the independent samples t-test produced in Q2a. Include the relevant output with your answer.

**Question 3a: **

**Walking for leisure and walking to get somewhere.**

The variable WalkLeisure gives an indication of the time each participant spent walking for leisure, and the variable WalkSomewhere gives an indication of the time each participant spent walking ‘to get somewhere’ in particular. Each of these variables was measured in minutes spent walking in the previous week. A health researcher believes that there is a difference, on average, between the time spent walking for leisure and the time spent walking purposefully in order to get somewhere in particular. Conduct a paired samples t- test [related samples t-test] using the WalkLeisure and WalkSomewhere variables to test this prediction. Produce the relevant output and write a paired samples t-test report based on your output in the style presented in Supplement I (Reporting Writing for Paired Samples t-Test).

**Question 3b: **

Assumption Checking for the paired samples t-test Check and comment on the assumptions of the paired samples t-test produced in Q3a. Include the relevant output with your answer.

**Question 4:**

A dietician wants to investigate ice-cream consumption, as this is her favourite ‘treat’ food. She has recently learnt that Americans consume, on average, 20.8 litres of ice-cream per person per year. She wondered if Australians consumption of ice-cream differs to that of Americans, so she accessed the data from an Australian Health Survey collected in 2021 pertaining to consumption of various food groups. A random sample of the data collected provided information pertaining to the ice-cream consumption [litres per year] of Australians.

**(a) **What type of statistical test would be appropriate to investigate the dietician’s prediction?

**(b) **What is the population we can draw conclusions about in this study?

**(c) **The dietician predicted that, on average, the consumption of ice-cream [litres per year] by Australians differs to that consumed by Americans. She conducted the appropriate hypothesis test and obtained a p-value of 0.143. Based on this result, the dietician concluded that Australians consume 20.8 litres of ice-cream per year. Is this conclusion valid or not?

**(d)** Comment on the validity of this conclusion. Provide justification for your answer.

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