PUBH7016-Introduction to Epidemiology – Medical Science Assignment Help

Assignment Task


Question 1.

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Read the following paper, and answer the questions below: “Vo TM, Tran VTN, Cuu TNT, Do TTH, Le TM. Domestic violence and its association with pre-term or low birthweight delivery in Vietnam. International Journal of Women Health 2019:11 501–510”

(a) “What study design does this study employ and identify from the paper methods sections key characteristics that support the design you just noted using bullet points”.

(b) What rationales / reasons do the authors give for conducting this study (this is usually found in the background).  Please use dot points and be concise as there are more than one reason.

(c) “What is/are the main exposure/s and what is/are main outcome/ of this study in operational terms, that mean exactly how the measures were defined?  ”

(d) “Build a 2 by 2 table in order to compute the association (OR) between domestic violence (yes/no) and pre-term/low birthweight from data presented in Table 4 and interpret this in your own words.”

(e) “Was the OR you found above differs from the Adjusted OR reported in Table 4? (note: the authors used the abbreviation POR meaning Adjusted Prevalence Odds Ratio (see in table legend). Please explain your answer – don’t just say “it was different” or “it was not different”.

(f) “What was the prevalence of physical violence in this sample (Table 3) and what was the adjusted association (POR- Table 5) between physical violence and pre term/low birthweight? Interpret the adjusted association in your own words, could it be a result of some error?”

(g) “What could be a source of measurement error (random or systematic) in this study and did the authors tried to address this problem. Explain with evidence from the relevant text in methods and/or discussion.”

(h) “Do you think the risk of selection bias is high or low? Corroborate your answer from the paper facts.

i) “Why the authors adjusted their analysis to alcohol consumption.

Question 2.

“In a case –control study researchers investigated the association between birth defect and consuming folic acid supplements during pregnancy. There were 72 infants born with birth defect and 55 of their mothers did not take folic supplementation during pregnancy. The authors matched for each case 3 mothers who gave birth to normal infant as control group. Among the control group there were 70 mothers who did not use folic supplementation during pregnancy.” 

(a) “Construct a table with columns and rows headings that summarise the data between exposure and outcome .”

b) “Calculate an appropriate measure of the strength of association between birth defect and folic acid supplements during pregnancy and how you interpret the findings  in your own words.”

c) “What is the attributable risk fraction (i.e., proportion of risk that is solely due to not taking folic acid supplementation in this case-control study) and explain it in your own words.

d) “What proportion of birth defect in the population is potentially preventable, assuming a causal association between folic acid supplement.”explain in words your findings. 


Question 3.

“In a cohort study of the association between self-reported tobacco smoking during pregnancy and stillbirth, smoking was associated with a two times higher risk of stillbirth [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.9]. It is acknowledged by the authors that smoking information from participants is likely to be hampered by errors resulting in likely misclassification of the study participants to exposure”. 
Identify the type of error from this example and explain whether the true risk between smoking and still-birth would be greater or smaller than the published OR of 1.9?

Question 4.

a)“In a study of maternal use of hormones during pregnancy and increased risk of childhood cancer, it was observed that mothers who used hormones during their pregnancies were more likely to have had a history of medically complicated pregnancies.  Further, and independent of the use of hormones, a history of medically complicated pregnancies may be associated with a subsequent increased risk of several conditions in the children, including cancer.” If so, this would be an example of:

i) The role of chance.
ii) Non-differential (random) misclassification.
iii) Recall bias.
iv) Confounding.”

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