BIOL122-Case Study of Peta and Rei – Medical Science Assignment Help

Assignment Task


Case Study 1:

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Peta is a retired, 65-year-old woman, who has been drinking a couple of alcoholic beverages every night whilst relaxing with her husband. She has also started smoking again, which she has not done since prior to her marriage 40 years ago. In fact, what started as a couple of cigarettes every day has now become a packet a day.

More recently, her friends have noticed that she stumbles quite often, forgets things, is moody, and is flushed in the face almost all the time. When questioned about the amount she drinks, she denies excessive use. She states that while she has 3–4 glasses of vodka every night. However, because she has noticed that she no longer gets the same pleasurable feelings from a couple of glasses as before, she doesn’t think the alcohol affects her as much as her friends suggest.

Further, Peta has also lost interest in many things she once enjoyed; dancing, going to the movies, and her art class. She cries at the drop of a hat, finds it difficult falling asleep at night, which led her to drink even more—often until she passes out. She has no energy to get up and just wants to stay in bed all day.

After several unsuccessful attempt, her husband, Ken, finally could convince her to seek professional help about her condition. At the medical clinic, the GP listens to Peta’s signs and symptoms, conducts a thorough physical examination, and then prescribes a benzodiazepine (Xanax) and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (Zoloft) for her. Peta is also given information on counselling and is referred to a professional counsellor to talk through her problems and help her with finding adequate coping strategies.

Question 1/1.

Based on the scenario outlined above, identify two diseases/conditions Peta has and by stating relevant facts from the case study, justify your answer.

Question 1/2.

For one of the diseases/conditions you have identified in Question 1/1, link the pathophysiology to the characteristic signs and symptoms of the disease. 

Question 1/3.

For the disease you have selected in Question ½, describe the mechanism of action of the relevant drug Peta is prescribed with and explain how these drug actions help mitigate some of her symptoms. In your answer, relate the drug’s mechanism of action to the pathophysiology of the disease. 

Peta’s family was happy with the management plan established by the doctor as Peta was progressing quite well. Unfortunately, however, on a quiet Sunday morning, Peta tripped and fell, which resulted in excruciating pain in her hip. She could not even get up; her husband called the ambulance and tried to comfort her until they arrived. She was taken to hospital, where the X-ray confirmed that she suffered hip fracture. The examination also revealed that although the fracture had not breached the integrity of the skin, it resulted in numerous fragments of bone at the site of the injury. A bone density test was also completed, which indicated that Peta had a T-score of ?2.7.

Question 1/4.

Interpret the result of the bone density measurement, indicate what reading would be considered physiological, and name the condition Peta’s finding is associated with. 

Question 1/5.

Describe the aetiology and pathogenesis of the disease you specified in the previous question. 

Question 1/6.

Name the structure where Peta’s fracture occurred and—based on the information provided and considering her history—characterize the fracture and describe the most likely link between the condition you named under Question 1/4 and her current injury.

Case Study 2:

Rei is a 53-year-old female, who decides to visit her GP as she has been feeling tired a lot. She often feels thirsty and has noticed she needs to urinate more frequently. The GP comments on Rei’s skinny appearance and asks if she had any weight changes recently. Rei realises she has been buying smaller sized clothes recently even though she had not experienced rapid changes in weight previously. The doctor examines Rei and notes she has a sweet, fruity odour to her breath. The doctor also orders both urine and blood tests for Rei.which gave the following results:


Question 2/1.

Name the underlying disease Rei is suffering from and justify your answer using two pieces of information from the clinical picture to support your conclusion. 

Question 2/2.

Evaluate Rei’s laboratory findings and name the acute complication Rei was suffering from when she visited her GP and explain your reasoning. 

Question 2/3.

Discuss the pathophysiology behind the complication. For this answer, ensure you relate to the condition identified earlier. 

Question 2/4.

Possible long-term complications of Rei’s present condition are nephropathy and consequent renal failure. Discuss the link between Rei’s underlying disease and nephropathy.

Question 2/5

Discuss the significance of Rei’s HbA1c reading.Rei’s aunt has been suffering from diabetes mellitus and has been using insulin to manage her condition for 20 years.

Question 2/6.

Explain the reasons diabetic patients (may) require exogenous insulin administration and discuss the need for using short- and long-acting preparations. In your answer, explain why administration of insulin tablets would be useless.

Rei’s aunt has been feeling tired all the time recently despite the successful management of her diabetes. She has also noticed that she has stiff & sore wrists. Intriguingly, the stiffness she experiences in her fingers as well is particularly severe when she goes to have her morning cigarette. She also finds that her fine finger movement when rolling her cigarettes have become much harder. Her GP completes a physical exam and notes that her joints are swollen and warm to touch.

Question 2/7.

Name the musculoskeletal disorder Rei aunt suffers from, justify your answer, and identify a risk factor in her history that may have contributed to the aetiology of the disease you specified. 

Question 2/8.

Compare and contrast the aetiology of Rei’s aunt joint disease with the other joint disease we covered in BIOL122. In your answer, name both diseases and describe two similarities and two differences. 

Rei’s work colleague, Kurt, is a 53-year-old father, who has worked as a gardener all his life. He has been diagnosed with stage IVA melanoma. Kurt underwent removal of the melanoma on his left forearm and a nearby lymph node dissection 7 weeks ago. He has been receiving immunotherapy for his melanoma which has not been successful and therefore he has been placed on chemotherapy. Kurt has been experiencing weight loss over the last 2 months as well as a persistent cough and shortness of breath. A CT scan reveals several, well circumscribed, rounded structures in the periphery of his lungs. A lung biopsy is performed, which confirms the presence of melanoma cells in the structures observed on the CT image.

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