Aircraft Wing’s Design Concept Analysis – Engineering Assignment Help

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Aircraft Wing’s Design Concept

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BMFA competition requirements:

  • Aircraft must be fixed wing.
  • The flight battery must be able to be removed and fitted when required.
  • An isolator must be fitted to the aircraft at least 100mm away from the propeller arc where it can be easily seen and access by marshals.
  • Payload will be liquid (water) and must be able to be loaded and unloaded when required.
  • One motor and speed controller are given and are standard across all competitors.

Given these requirements, there is many choices available to the competitors as there are very few constraints on the types of aircraft allowed. The requirements are primarily designed for safety and fairness across all teams whilst still allowing a large amount of creativity. With this information we can now move on to the conceptual design stage.

Aircraft Wing's Design Concept

Evaluation of previous competition designs:
Analysis of previous competitors UAS designs show that typical aerofoil sizing for this competition range from around 1.5 – 2 metres for the wingspan and have a chord length ranging from 20 – 35 cm for the maximum chord length (for conventional monoplane designs). This sizing will be used as a guide for our concept design if a conventional monoplane is chosen as the way forward.  The volume allocated for payload in these designs is enough to accommodate around 3 – 4 kg of water. As this competition is designed to determine which aircraft can lift the most payload the upper bound of 4kg payload capacity will be aimed for with this concept.

After considering many different concepts from within this table we have decided to look at the following two concepts for further development:
Concept 1: Tricycle, blended wing, payload within both fuselage & wing, access hatch for loading, and Tailerons with rudder.
Concept 2: Tail dragger, top mounted monoplane, payload located within fuselage, with a removable wing to load and unload, and ailerons combined with a conventional tail plane.

PUGH Matrix:
As a result of this PUGH matrix concept 2 has been deemed as the better design to move forward with.

Final concept proposal: 
Wing/tail selection – The chosen aerofoil will be mounted above the fuselage and be removable so that the inside of the fuselage can be accessed. By mounting the wing above the fuselage, we increase the lateral stability of the Unmanned Aircraft systems (UAS)as the Centre of Gravity (CofG) is below. By making the whole wing removable it gives us the ability to place the payload precisely where we want for greater stability in flight. It also has the bonus of making transportation and assembly easier. The aerofoil cross section is yet to be determined but it will need to have a high lift to drag ratio and be designed for low Reynolds number flows as we do not expect the UAS to reach insanely high speeds. A conventional tail was chosen with a single elevator (that runs for the full width) for its simplicity.

Tail dragger – A tail dragger design was chosen as it eliminates the need for an extra wheel which reduces the empty weight of the UAS. We also believe that we can find a more aerodynamic solution than a wheel which will result in a reduction in drag. An added benefit of this choice is that during take-off there is greater propeller clearance to the ground which may present some opportunities in future design processes

Systems integration – The motor, speed controller, and propeller will be housed in the nose of the aircraft, with the battery stored in an area under the removable wing. This allows it to be taken out/put in when need be. This also means that the CofG is not too far forward which would have a significant affect on the longitudinal stability. The “isolator” will be fitted at the rear of the fuselage where the connection to the tailplane begins. This is to comply with the competition requirements.

Fuselage – The payload will be stored within the fuselage and has enough volume to contain all the needed support structures and at least 4kg of water. The location of the payload withing the UAS means that no matter the total payload it is possible to keep the CofG approximately in the same position. We chose a long and thin design to reduce the overall drag.

Estimated sizing/performance metrics: 
Aerofoil wingspan – 1.8m 
• Aerofoil maximum chord length – 30cm 
• UAS length (nose to tail) – 2m 
• UAS height – 40cm 
Target weight – < 1kg> • Wing loading = weight/wing area = 0.926 kg/m2 

All these values are approximate and would be adjected in a later stage of the design process to optimize performance. 

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